1. Berns MW, Aist J, Edwards J, Strahs K, Girton J, McNeill P, Rattner JB, Kitzes M, Hammer-Wilson M, Liaw L-H, Siemens A, Koonce M, Peterson S, Brenner S, Burt J, Walter R, Bryant PJ, van Dyk D, Coulombe J, Cahill T, Berns GS: Laser microsurgery in cell and developmental biology. Science 213:505-513, 1981.
  2. Berns GS and Berns MW: Computer-based tracking of living cells. Exp. Cell Res. 142:103-109, 1982.
  3. Berns MW, Berns GS, Coffey J, Wile AG: Exposure (dose) tables for hematoporphyrin derivative photoradiation therapy. Lasers in Surgery & Med. 4:107-131, 1984.
  4. Berns GS, Hull ML, Patterson HA: Implementation of a five degree of freedom automated system to determine knee flexibility in vitro. J. Biomech. Eng. 112:392-400, 1990.
  5. Howell SM, Berns GS, Farley TE: Unimpinged and impinged anterior cruciate ligament grafts: MR signal intensity measurements. Radiology 179:639-643, 1991.
  6. Berns GS, Hull ML, Patterson HA: Strain in the anteromedial bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament under combination loading. J. Orthop. Res. 10:167-176, 1992.
  7. Berns GS, Howell SM, Farley TE: The accuracy of signal intensity measurements in magnetic resonance imaging as evaluated within the knee. Magn. Reson. Imag. 10:573-578, 1992.
  8. Berns GS and Howell SM: Roofplasty requirements in vitro for different tibial hole placements in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Am. J. Sports Med. 21:292-298, 1993.
  9. Berns GS, Dayan P, Sejnowski TJ: A correlational model for the development of disparity selectivity in visual cortex that depends on prenatal and postnatal phases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 90:8277-8281, 1993. PDF.
  10. Hull ML, Berns GS, Varma H, Patterson HA: Strain in the medial collateral ligament of the human knee under single and combined loads. J. Biomech. 29:199-206, 1996.
  11. Berns GS, Cohen JD, Mintun MA: Brain regions responsive to novelty in the absence of awareness. Science, 276:1272-1275, 1997. PDF
  12. Berns GS and Sejnowski TJ: A computational model of how the basal ganglia produce sequences. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 10:108-121, 1998. PDF.
  13. Nemeroff CB, Kilts CD, Berns GS: Functional brain imaging: Twenty-first century phrenology or psychobiological advance for the millennium? Am. J. Psychiatry 156:671-673, 1999.
  14. Berns GS, Song AW, Mao H: Continuous functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals dynamic nonlinearities in "dose-response" curves for finger opposition. J. Neurosci. 19:RC17:1-6, 1999. PDF.
  15. Bischoff-Grethe A, Proper SM, Mao H, Daniels KA, Berns GS: Conscious and unconscious processing of nonverbal predictability in Wernicke's area. J. Neurosci. 20(5):1975-1981, 2000. PDF.
  16. Berns GS, McClure SM, Pagnoni G, Montague PR: Predictability modulates human brain response to reward. J. Neurosci., 21:2793-2798, 2001. PDF.
  17. Bischoff-Grethe A, Martin M, Mao H, Berns GS: The context of uncertainty modulates the subcortical response to predictability. J. Cogn. Neurosci., 13:986-993, 2001. PDF.
  18. Berns GS, Martin M, Proper S: Limbic hyperreactivity in bipolar II disorder. Am. J. Psychiatry, 159:304-306, 2002. PDF.
  19. Pagnoni G, Zink CF, Montague PR, Berns GS: Activity in human ventral striatum locked to errors of reward prediction. Nat. Neurosci., 5:97-98, 2002. PDF.
  20. Dhamala M, Pagnoni G, Wiesenfeld K, Berns GS: Measurements of brain activity complexity for varying mental loads. Phys. Rev. E., 65:041917(7), 2002. PDF.
  21. Rilling JK, Gutman DA, Zeh TR, Pagnoni G, Berns GS, Kilts CD: A neural basis for social cooperation. Neuron, 35:395-405, 2002. PDF.
  22. Montague PR, Berns GS, Cohen JD, McClure SM, Pagnoni G, Dhamala M, Wiest M, Karpov I, King RD, Apple N, Fisher RE: Hyperscanning: Simultaneous fMRI during linked social interactions, Neuroimage 16:1159-1164, 2002. PDF.
  23. McClure SM, Berns GS, Montague PR: Temporal prediction errors in a passive learning task activate human striatum. Neuron 38: 339-346, 2003. PDF.
  24. Dhamala M, Pagnoni G, Wiesenfeld K, Zink CF, Martin M, Berns GS: Neural correlates of the complexity of rhythmic finger tapping. Neuroimage 20:918-926, 2003. PDF.
  25. Zink CF, Pagnoni G, Martin ME, Dhamala M, Berns GS: Human striatal response to salient non-rewarding stimuli. J. Neurosci. 23:8092-8097, 2003. PDF. Accompanying editorial.
  26. Zink CF, Pagnoni G, Martin-Skurski ME, Chappelow JC, Berns GS: Human striatal response to monetary reward depends on saliency. Neuron 42:509-517, 2004. PDF.
  27. Capuron L, Pagnoni G, Demetrashvili M, Woolwine BJ, Nemeroff CB, Berns GS, Miller AH: Anterior cingulate activation and error processing during interferon-alpha treatment. Biol. Psychiatry 58:190-196, 2005. PDF.
  28. Berns GS, Chappelow JC, Zink CF, Pagnoni G, Martin-Skurski ME, Richards R: Neurobiological correlates of social conformity and independence during mental rotation. Biol. Psychiatry 58:245-253, 2005. PDF.
  29. Zink CF, Pagnoni G, Chappelow JC, Martin-Skurski ME, Berns GS: Human striatal activation reflects degree of stimulus saliency. Neuroimage 29:977-983, 2006. PDF.
  30. Berns GS, Chappelow J, Cekic M, Zink CF, Pagnoni G, Martin-Skurski ME: Neurobiologic substrates of dread. Science, 312:754-758, 2006. PDF. Supporting Materials.
  31. Capuron L, Pagnoni G, Demetrashvili MF, Lawson DH, Fornwalt FB, Woolwine B, Berns GS, Nemeroff CB, Miller AH: Basal ganglia hypermetabolism and symptoms of fatigue during interferon-alpha therapy. Neuropsychopharmacology 32:2394-2392 , 2007.
  32. Berns GS, Capra CM, Moore S, Noussair C: A shocking experiment: new evidence on probability weighting and common ratio violations. Judgment & Decision Making 2:234-242, 2007. PDF.
  33. Chandrasekhar PVS, Capra CM, Moore S, Noussair C, Berns GS: Neurobiological regret and rejoice functions for aversive outcomes. Neuroimage 39:1472-1484 (epub Nov 2007). PDF.
  34. Berns GS, Capra CM, Chappelow J, Moore S, Noussair C: Nonlinear neurobiological probability weighting functions for aversive outcomes. Neuroimage 39:2047-2057, 2008 (epub Nov 2007). PDF.
  35. Engelmann JB, Capra CM, Noussair C, Berns GS: Expert financial advice neurobiologically "offloads" financial decision-making under risk. PLoS One 4:e4957, 2009. Link. PDF.
  36. Berns GS, Moore S, Capra CM: Adolescent engagement in dangerous behaviors is associated with increased white matter maturity of frontal cortex. PLoS One 4(8):e6773, 2009. Link. PDF.
  37. Berns GS, Capra CM, Moore S, Noussair C: Neural mechanisms of the influence of popularity on adolescent ratings of music. Neuroimage 49:2687-2696, 2010. PDF.
  38. Brooks AM, Pammi VSC, Noussair C, Capra CM, Engelmann JB, Berns GS: From bad to worse: striatal coding of the relative value of painful decisions. Front. Neurosci doi: 10.3389/fnins.2010.00176, 2010. PDF.
  39. Berns GS and Moore SE: A neural predictor of cultural popularity. J Consumer Psychol. doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2011.05.001, 2011.
  40. Berns GS, Bell E, Capra CM, Prietula MJ, Moore S, Anderson B, Ginges J, Atran S: The price of your soul: neural evidence for the non-utilitarian representation of sacred values. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B, in press, 2012.
  41. Berns GS, Brooks AM, Spivak M (2012) Functional MRI in Awake Unrestrained Dogs. PLoS ONE 7(5): e38027. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.003802 PDF
  42. Pritrulia MJ, Levine SS: How Knowledge Transfer Impacts Performance:A Multilevel Model of Benefits and Liabilities Organizational Science, Vol. 23, No. 6, November¿December 2012, pp. 1748¿1766 PDF
Review Articles
  1. Berns GS: Functional neuroimaging. Life Sci 65:2531-2540, 1999. PDF.
  2. Berns GS and Nemeroff CB: Extreme measures. The neurobiology of bipolar disorder. Odyssey 5:36-41, 1999.
  3. Mao H and Berns GS: MRI in the study of brain functions: clinical perspectives. Medicamundi 46:28-38, 2002. PDF.
  4. Montague PR and Berns GS: Neural economics and the biological substrates of valuation. Neuron 36:265-284, 2002. PDF.
  5. Berns GS and Nemeroff CB: The neurobiology of bipolar disorder. Am. J. Med. Genet C 123C:76-84, 2003. PDF.
  6. Berns GS: Neural game theory and the search for rational agents in the brain. Behav. Brain Sci. 26:155-156, 2003.
  7. Berns GS: Something funny happened to reward. Trends Cogn. Sci. 8:193-194, 2004. PDF.
  8. Berns GS: Price, placebo, and the brain. J. Marketing Res. XLII:399-400, 2005. PDF.
  9. Berns GS, Capra CM, Noussair C: Receptor theory and biological constraints on value. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci. 1104:301-309, 2007. PDF.
  10. Berns GS, Laibson D, Loewenstein G: Intertemporal choice -- toward an integrated framework, Trends Cogn. Sci., 11:482-488, 2007. PDF.
  11. Ariely D and Berns GS: Neuromarketing: The hope and hype of neuoroimaging in business. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 11:284-292, 2010. PDF.
  12. Berns GS and Atran S: The biology of cultural conflict. Phil. Trans. Royal Soc. B, in press, 2012.


  1. Berns GS: Satisfaction. The Science of Finding True Fulfillment. Henry Holt & Co., 2005. Foreign editions: German, Dutch, Korean, Japanese, Chinese, Romanian.
  2. Berns GS: Iconoclast. A Neuroscientist Reveals How to Think Differently. Harvard Business School Press, 2008. Foreign editions: Korean, Portugese, Thai.

Book Chapters

  1. Berns GS and Sejnowski TJ: How the basal ganglia make decisions. The Neurobiology of Decision-Making. A Damasio, H Damasio, Y Christen eds, Springer-Verlag, 1996, pp. 101-113.
  2. Berns GS: Cognitive neuroscience. Encyclopedia of Psychology and Neuroscience, WE Craighead and CB Nemeroff eds. John Wiley & Sons, 2000, pp. 314-315.
  3. Montague PR, Eagleman DM, McClure SM, Berns GS: Reinforcement learning. Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. L Nadel ed. Macmillan Reference, 2003.
  4. Pagnoni, G and Berns GS: Brain imaging in psychopharmacology. Textbook of Psychopharmacology, Third Edition. AF Schatzberg and CB Nemeroff eds. American Psychiatric Publishing, 2004, pp. 163-172.

Book Reviews

  1. Berns GS and Nemeroff CB: Book Review of "The Neuropsychiatry of Limbic and Subcortical Disorders." J Psych Neurosci 24:251-252, 1999.

Other Publications

  1. Berns GS: Force distribution patterns in the foot during running. A.B. Thesis, Dept. of Physics, Princeton University, 1986.
  2. Berns GS: Strain within the anterior cruciate and medial collateral ligaments of the human knee under combination loading. Ph.D. Dissertation, Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, 1990.


  • 5/97 National Public Radio. Interview on learning without awareness.
  • 5/97 BBC. Interviewed on learning without awareness.
  • 7/97 Insight magazine. Quoted on subconscious learning in interview with Gavin de Becker and his book, "The Gift of Fear."
  • 9/97 Psychology Today. Interview on, "Learning but not Trying."
  • 5/99 Georgia Tech / Emory MiniMedical School lecture on "Imaging the Mind."
  • 7/99 WSB-TV Atlanta. Interviewed for special production on Depression.
  • 12/00 CNN-FYI. Live webcast for high-school Q&A on "Brain Structure and Function".
  • 4/01 New York Times, Washington Post, LA Times,,,, WebMD, Science, Scientific American, Reuters Health. Write-ups on the role of surprise in reward processing.
  • 7/01 Self Magazine. Article on surprise and reward.
  • 10/01 Prevention Magazine. Article on surprise and reward.
  • 2/02 New York Times full-length article on neural economics.
  • 3/02 Nature News & Views on Hyperscanning.
  • 7/02 New York Times full length article on neural basis of cooperation.
  • 7/02 International Herald Tribune, Front Page of National Post (Canada), Reuters, WIRED, BBC, FOXNews, Atlanta Journal-Constitution coverage of neural basis of cooperation.
  • 8/02 Chicago Tribune story on the evolution of cooperation.
  • 9/02 "Madison Avenue and Your brain"
  • 10/02 Money Magazine. Cover story on "Your Money & Your Brain"
  • 10/02 Reader's Digest.
  • 6/03 NY Times "Brain experts follow the money"
  • 9/03 Forbes "In search of the buy button"
  • 9/03 Financial Times "In search of the inside story of economics"
  • 3/04 O Magazine, article on novelty and happiness
  • 5/04 AP article on working for money
  • 5/04 CNN America Morning live interview on working for money
  • 4/05 First article on Surprise
  • 6/05 NY Times "What Other People Say May Change What You See"
  • 9/05 LA Times "For True Fulfillment, Seek Satisfaction, Not Happiness"
  • 9/05 O Magazine, Fortune, Glamour, Psychology Today, reviews of Satisfaction
  • 9/05 Town Hall Seattle Science Lecture on "Satisfaction"
  • 9/05 Microsoft Headquarters, lecture on "Satisfaction"
  • 9/05 NPR - Science Friday, "The Science of Satisfaction"
  • 12/05 Atlanta Magazine: book excerpt
  • 12/05 Wall Street Journal article on "shopping high"
  • 1/06 ABC Primetime segment on conformity
  • 2/06 Washington Post: review of Satisfaction
  • 5/06 New York Times, AP, NPR, BBC, and multiple outlets: coverage of neurobiology of dread
  • 3/07 The Space Show: interview on risky and decision-making in space exploration
  • 5/07 ReachMD (XM 233): interview on risky decision making
  • 5/07 Fox Atlanta: TV news segment on the teenage brain